|06 F 09|
|Palouse 3 - catsweat|
palouse, man, hypercolor interswitch, etc
Keywords: thin sections; palouse; catsweat; geopunk; hypercolor; olivine
|The iron, magnesium, and calcium distribution in coexisting olivines and rhombic pyroxenes of chondrites - Fredriksson, K.|
Iron, magnesium & calcium distribution in olivines & rhombic pyroxenes of chondrites
Keywords: CALCIUM; MAGNESIUM; OLIVINE; PYROXENE; CHONDRITES; IRON; MAGNESIUM; OLIVINE; PYROXENES; CALCIUM; CHONDRITE; IRON
|Aeolian Processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Landing Site - Sullivan, R.|
The traverse of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity across its Meridiani Planum landing site has shown that wind has affected regolith by creating drifts, dunes, and ubiquitous ripples, by sorting grains during aeolian transport, by forming bright wind streaks downwind from craters seen from orbit, and by eroding rock with abrading, wind-blown material. Pre-landing orbiter observations showed bright and dark streaks tapering away from craters on the Meridiani plains...
Keywords: CHROMITES; NICKEL; OLIVINE; MINERALOGY; BASALT; PETROGENESIS; PLANETS; OXYGEN; MAGMA
|The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology - Dick, Steven J.|
In the opening weeks of 1998 a news article in the British journal Nature reported that NASA was about to enter biology in a big way. A ''virtual'' Astrobiology Institute was gearing up for business, and NASA administrator Dan Goldin told his external advisory council that he would like to see spending on the new institute eventually reach 100 million per year. ''You just wait for the screaming from the physical scientists (when that happens),'' Goldin was quoted as saying...
Keywords: CHONDRULE; COOLING; HEATING; PETROGRAPHY; NEBULAE; OLIVINE; PLAGIOCLASE; PYROXENES; METEORITIC COMPOSITION
|A New Raman Water Vapor Lidar Calibration Technique and Measurements in the Vicinity of Hurricane Bonnie - Evans, Keith D.|
The NAcA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar has made measurements of water vapor and aerosols for almost ten years. Calibration of the water vapor data has typically been performed by comparison with another water vapor sensor such as radiosondes. We present a new method for water vapor calibration that only requires low clouds, and surface pressure and temperature measurements. A sensitivity study was performed and the cloud base algorithm agrees with the radiosonde calibration to...
Keywords: METEORITES; MINERALOGY; PETROLOGY; ACHONDRITES; CRYSTALLIZATION; IRON; MAGNESIUM; OLIVINE
|Immune Function Changes during a Spaceflight-Analog Undersea Mission - Crucian, Brian|
There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation. This may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. It is attractive to utilize ground-based spaceflight analogs as appropriate to investigate this phenomenon. For spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID), the authors believe the most appropriate analogs might be NEEMO (short duration, Shuttle analog), Antarctic wint...
Keywords: MANGANESE; ABUNDANCE; RARE GASES; SILICIDES; INTERPLANETARY DUST; GRIGG-SKJELLERUP COMET; MINERALS; COMETS; METEORITES; OLIVINE; TARGETS
|Evaluations of Risks from the Lunar and Mars Radiation Environments - Kim, Myung-Hee|
Protecting astronauts from the space radiation environments requires accurate projections of radiation in future space missions. Characterization of the ionizing radiation environment is challenging because the interplanetary plasma and radiation fields are modulated by solar disturbances and the radiation doses received by astronauts in interplanetary space are likewise influenced. The galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) flux for the next solar cycle was estimated as a function of interplanetary de...
Keywords: METEORITES; PETROLOGY; SHERGOTTITES; OLIVINE; MINERALS; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; ANTARCTIC REGIONS; CRUSTS; ELECTRON PROBES
|Li, B - Behavior in Lunar Basalts During Shock and Thermal Metamorphism: Implications for H2O in Martian Magmas - Chaklader, Johny|
Introduction: The water-content of Martian magmas is a topic of debate among researchers. Some Martian basalts are characterized with melt inclusions of biotite, apatite and amphibole; phases typically associated with hydration reactions on Earth [1-3]. However, the H-content of melt inclusions from these basalts is low, and bulk-rock H2O-contents range from a meager 0.013 to 0.035 wt. % in Shergotty ...
Keywords: CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES; NICKEL; ISOTOPE RATIOS; CHONDRULE; METEORITIC COMPOSITION; MINERALOGY; LEAD ISOTOPES; BRECCIA; OLIVINE; SILICATES; IRON
|A Formal Approach to Requirements-Based Programming - Hinchey, Michael G.|
No significant general-purpose method is currently available to mechanically transform system requirements into a provably equivalent model. The widespread use of such a method represents a necessary step toward high-dependability system engineering for numerous application domains. Current tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient...
Keywords: ROCKS; ASTEROID BELTS; TEXTURES; METEORITIC COMPOSITION; CHONDRITES; OLIVINE; CHONDRULE; FRAGMENTS; MINERALOGY; MINERALS
|SELF-BROADENING OF PRINCIPAL SERIES LINES OF RUBIDIUM AT HIGH NUMBER DENSITIES - KUSCH, H. J|
SELF-BROADENING OF PRINCIPAL SERIES LINES OF RUBIDIUM WAS STUDIED USING A STEEL ABSORPTION TUBE HEATED IN AN ELECTRIC FURNACE. LINE PROFILES WERE OBTAINED WITH A GRATING SPECTROGRAPH OF HIGH RESOLUTION IN THE TEMPERATURE RANGE 350 TO 420 C CORRESPONDING TO NUMBER DENSITIES OF 18.6 TO 119 X 10 TO THE 15TH POWER/CUBIC CENTIMETERS. THE HALF-WIDTHS OF THE LINES DISAGREE WITH CLASSICAL IMPACT CALCULATIONS USING DIPOLE-DIPOLE INTERACTION BUT APPROACH THE ASYMPTOTIC VALUE OF THE QUANTUM-MECHANICAL POLA...
Keywords: METEORITIC COMPOSITION; STONY METEORITES; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; CHONDRITES; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; OLIVINE; PYROXENES
|Characterization of the Minimum Energy Path for the Reaction of Singlet Methylene with N2: The Role of Singlet Methylene in Prompt NO - Walch, Stephen P|
We report calculations of the minimum energy pathways connecting CH2 N2 to diazomethane and diazirine, for the rearrangement of diazirine to diazomethane, for the dissociation of diazirine to HCN2H, and of diazomethane to CH2NN. The calculations use Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) derivative methods to characterize the stationary points and Internally Contracted Configuration Interaction (ICCI) to determine the energetics...
Keywords: TRACE ELEMENTS; SILICATES; PETROGRAPHY; OLIVINE; MINERALS; GEOCHEMISTRY; IGNEOUS ROCKS; MARS (PLANET); METEORITES; CLAYS; MAGNESIUM; FRACTIONATION; WATER
|Balanced Branching in Transcription Termination - Harrington, K. J.|
The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle but many troubling inconsistencies, most notab...
Keywords: CALCIUM; METEORITIC COMPOSITION; CHONDRITES; METEORITES; MINERALOGY; PYROXENES; ASTEROIDS; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; SILICATES; RANDOM NOISE; OLIVINE
|Creep Testing of High-Temperature Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb Alloy Completed - NON|
A Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy is under development for high-temperature, high heatflux applications, such as actively cooled, hypersonic vehicle heat exchangers and rocket engine combustion chambers. Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb offers a superior combination of strength and conductivity. It has also shown exceptional low-cycle fatigue properties. Following preliminary testing to determine the best processing route, a more detailed testing program was initiated to determine the creep lives and cr...
Keywords: LITHIUM ISOTOPES; PLANETARY ENVIRONMENTS; CRUSTS; ISOTOPE SEPARATION; METEORITES; DIFFUSION; OLIVINE; MINERALOGY
|Exposure to a Rotating Virtual Environment During Treadmill Locomotion Causes Adaptation in Heading Direction - Ruttley, T|
The goal of the present study was to investigate the adaptive effects of variation in the direction of optic flow, experienced during linear treadmill walking, on modifying locomotor trajectory. Subjects (n = 30) walked on a motorized linear treadmill at 4.0 kilometers per hour for 24 minutes while viewing the interior of a 3D virtual scene projected onto a screen 1.5 in in front of them. The virtual scene depicted constant self-motion equivalent to either 1) walking around the perimeter of a ro...
Keywords: NAKHLITES; ALUMINUM OXIDES; PYROXENES; CHROMIUM; OLIVINE; PETROGRAPHY; IRON; MELTS (CRYSTAL GROWTH); MAGMA; HOMOGENEITY
|Analysis of a Cylindrical Specimen Heated by an Impinging Hot Hydrogen Jet - Wang, Ten-See|
A computational conjugate heat transfer methodology was developed, as a first step towards an efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber and components. A solid conduction heat transfer procedure was implemented onto a pressure-based, multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, and unstructured grid computational fluid dynamics form...
Keywords: CHONDRITES; PYROXENES; RECRYSTALLIZATION; CHROMITES; PYRRHOTITE; UREILITES; PETROLOGY; BRECCIA; MINERALOGY; METEORITIC COMPOSITION; OLIVINE; ANTARCTIC REGIONS; PLAGIOCLASE
|On the statistical distribution of spacecraft maximum structural response - Yang, J.-N|
Statistical distribution of spacecraft maximum structural response to random excitations
Keywords: DIAMONDS; GARNETS; OLIVINE; U.S.S.R; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; POTASSIUM OXIDES; PYROXENES; X RAY ANALYSIS
|IUE's View of Callisto: Detection of an SO2 Absorption Correlated to Possible Torus Neutral Wind Alterations - Lane, Arthur L.|
Observations taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) detected a 0.28 micron absorption feature on Callisto's leading and Jupiter-facing hemispheres. This feature is similar to Europa's 0.28 micron feature, however it shows no correlation with magnetospheric ion bombardment. The strongest 0.28 micron signature is seen in the region containing the Valhalla impact. This absorption feature also shows some spatial correlation to possible neutral wind interactions, suggestive of S impl...
Keywords: MINERALOGY; OLIVINE; MELTING; EXCAVATION; CLEMENTINE SPACECRAFT; ANOMALIES; MOON; LUNAR MANTLE; EVALUATION; BASALT; TARGETS; ROCKS; PYROXENES
|Open Rotor Noise Prediction at NASA Langley - Capabilities, Research and Development - Farassat, Fereidou|
The high fuel prices of recent years have caused the operating cost of the airlines to soar. In an effort to bring down the fuel consumption, the major aircraft engine manufacturers are now taking a fresh look at open rotors for the propulsion of future airliners. Open rotors, also known as propfans or unducted fans, can offer up to 30 per cent improvement in efficiency compared to high bypass engines of 1980 vintage currently in use in most civilian aircraft...
Keywords: SNC METEORITES; CONVERGENCE; MINERALOGY; MOSSBAUER EFFECT; BACKSCATTERING; IN SITU MEASUREMENT; OLIVINE; IRON; MINERALS; SPECTROMETERS
|EEE Links - NON|
The EEE Links Newsletter is a quarterly publication produced by Code 562 in support of the NASA HQ funded NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The newsletter is produced as an electronic format deliverable made available via the referenced www site administered by Code 562, The newsletter publishes brief articles on topics of interest to NASA programs and projects in the area of electronic parts and packaging...
Keywords: ANTARCTIC REGIONS; METEORITES; METEORITIC COMPOSITION; CLASSIFICATIONS; ACHONDRITES; IRON; OLIVINE; PETROGRAPHY; THERMOLUMINESCENCE
|Novel fluorohydrocarbons - NON|
Novel fluorohydrocarbons include a fluoroalkyl unit terminating in a tertiary carbon atom which is directly linked to an aliphatic moiety of the compound. The compounds contain at least 9 carbon atoms and usually no more than 13 carbon atoms. The compounds are synthesized by addition of a fluoride atom to the tertiary carbon atom of a fluorocarbon material to form a carbanion followed by alkylation of the carbanion...
Keywords: MOSSBAUER EFFECT; MINERALOGY; OXIDATION; PYROXENES; SOILS; ROCKS; NAKHLITES; MARS EXPLORATION; ROVING VEHICLES; SNC METEORITES; BASALT; OLIVINE; MARS CRATERS; HEMATITE
|Lump of peridot|
Keywords: Egypt; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Africa; 1st–6th Century A.D; Glass; Olivine; Fragments; Peridot
|Head of a wand|
Keywords: ca. 5th–4th century B.C; Stone; Iran; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Assyrian; Asia; Olivine; Chrysolite; Sculpture
Keywords: Europe; 19th–20th century; Jewelry; Necklaces; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Accessories; Olivine; European; Peridot; Costume
|Formation of Clustered DNA Damage after High-LET Irradiation: A Review - Hada, Megumi|
Radiation can cause as well as cure cancer. The risk of developing radiation-induced cancer has traditionally been estimated from cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These data provide the best estimate of human cancer risk over the dose range for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, such as X- or gamma-rays. The situation of estimating the real biological effects becomes even more difficult in the case of high LET particles encountered in spac...
Keywords: X RAY DIFFRACTION; WILD 2 COMET; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; INTERPLANETARY DUST; EXTRATERRESTRIAL MATTER; OLIVINE; LAUE METHOD; IMAGING TECHNIQUES; DIFFRACTION
|A Method of Efficient Inclination Changes for Low-Thrust Spacecraft - Falck, Robert|
The evolution of low-thrust propulsion technologies has reached a point where such systems have become an economical option for many space missions. The development of efficient, low trip time control laws has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years, though few studies have examined the subject of inclination changing maneuvers in detail. A method for performing economical inclination changes through the use of an efficiency factor is derived front Lagrange's planetary equatio...
Keywords: PETROLOGY; ANDESITE; SILICON; SOILS; OLIVINE; RARE GASES; SNC METEORITES; MARS SURFACE; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CONFERENCES; PLANETARY EVOLUTION; ISOTOPES; SHERGOTTITES; MOSSBAUER EFFECT
|Forward sweep, low noise rotor blade - NON|
A forward-swept, low-noise rotor blade includes an inboard section, an aft-swept section, and a forward-swept outboard section. The rotor blade reduces the noise of rotorcraft, including both standard helicopters and advanced systems such as tiltrotors. The primary noise reduction feature is the forward sweep of the planform over a large portion of the outer blade radius. The rotor blade also includes an aft-swept section...
Keywords: CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES; SERPENTINE; X RAY DIFFRACTION; HEATING; MINERALOGY; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; TEMPERATURE EFFECTS; CRYSTALLIZATION; ELECTRON PROBES; HYDROGEN; OLIVINE
|MC-1 Engine Valves, Lessons Learned - Laszar, Joh|
Many lessons were learned during the development of the valves for the MC-1 engine. The purpose of this report is to focus on a variety of issues related to the engine valves and convey the lessons learned. This paper will not delve into detailed technical analysis of the components. None of the lessons learned are new or surprising, but simply reinforce the importance of addressing the details of the design early, at the component level...
Keywords: CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES; METEORITIC COMPOSITION; MINERALS; CATIONS; FORSTERITE; BACKSCATTERING; MINERALOGY; OLIVINE; PETROGRAPHY; AMOEBA; INCLUSIONS; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; BRECCIA; IRON OXIDES
|Simulations of Bluff Body Flow Interaction for Noise Source Modeling - Khorrami, Medi R.|
The current study is a continuation of our effort to characterize the details of flow interaction between two cylinders in a tandem configuration. This configuration is viewed to possess many of the pertinent flow features of the highly interactive unsteady flow field associated with the main landing gear of large civil transports. The present effort extends our previous two-dimensional, unsteady, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computations to three dimensions using a quasilaminar, zonal approa...
Keywords: IRON; CORE-MANTLE BOUNDARY; RESIDUES; MAGMA; OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS; MANGANESE; OLIVINE; OXYGEN ISOTOPES; TRACE ELEMENTS; ASTEROIDS; MINERALOGY; GEOCHEMISTRY
|The Archean crust in the Wawa-Chapleau-Timmins region. A field guidebook prepared for the 1983 Archean Geochemistry-Early Crustal Genesis Field Conference - Percival, J. A.|
This guidebook describes the characteristics and interrelationships of Archean greenstone-granite and high-grade gneiss terrains of the Superior Province. A 300-km long west to east transect between Wawa and Timmins, Ontario will be used to illustrate regional-scale relationships. The major geological features of the Superior Province are described.
Keywords: IGNEOUS ROCKS; PETROLOGY; TRACE ELEMENTS; OLIVINE; RECRYSTALLIZATION; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CONCENTRATION (COMPOSITION); CRYSTALS; EARTH SURFACE; MELTING; METAMORPHISM (GEOLOGY)
|Forsterite olivine deposits of North Carolina and Georgia - Hunter, Charles E. (Charles Eugene), 1911-|
Includes bibliographical references
Keywords: Olivine; Forsterite; Mines and mineral resources -- North Carolina; Mines and mineral resources -- Georgia; Refractory materials -- North Carolina; Refractory materials -- Georgia
|Space Network Control Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches - NON|
The results are presented of the Space Network Control (SNC) Conference. In the late 1990s, when the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System is operational, Space Network communication services will be supported and controlled by the SNC. The goals of the conference were to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches, to identify solutions applicable to the Space Network, and to identify avenues of study in support of the SNC development...
Keywords: CHONDRITES; INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION; MICROSCOPES; NEAR INFRARED RADIATION; ORGANIC MATERIALS; SILICATES; CHONDRULE; CRUSHING; METEORITIC COMPOSITION; METEORITIC MICROSTRUCTURES; OLIVINE; REFLECTANCE; SPECTRA; ASTEROIDS
|Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials - Selvaduray, Guna|
Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of mate...
Keywords: BRECCIA; OLIVINE; LASER BEAMS; HOLOGRAPHY; FORSTERITE; CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES; LUNAR EXPLORATION; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; PYROXENES; LUNAR ROCKS; LUNAR SOIL; MINERALOGY; OPTICAL FIBERS
|Accurate Measurements of the Local Deuterium Abundance from HST Spectra - Linsky, Jeffrey L|
An accurate measurement of the primordial value of D/H would provide a critical test of nucleosynthesis models for the early universe and the baryon density. I briefly summarize the ongoing HST observations of the interstellar H and D Lyman-alpha absorption for lines of sight to nearby stars and comment on recent reports of extragalactic D/H measurements.
Keywords: ARGON ISOTOPES; ARGON; ABUNDANCE; COSMIC RAYS; LASER HEATING; OLIVINE; SPHERULES; BASALT; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; LUNAR MARIA; RARE EARTH ELEMENTS; REGOLITH; CRYSTALLIZATION; TRACE ELEMENTS; HEAVY ELEMENTS
|Synthesis of Nano-Crystalline Gamma-TiAl Materials - Hales, Stephen J.|
One of the principal problems with nano-crystalline materials is producing them in quantities and sizes large enough for valid mechanical property evaluation. The purpose of this study was to explore an innovative method for producing nano-crystalline gamma-TiAl bulk materials using high energy ball milling and brief secondary processes. Nano-crystalline powder feedstock was produced using a Fritsch P4(TM) vario-planetary ball mill recently installed at NASA-LaRC...
Keywords: TERRESTRIAL PLANETS; ABSTRACTS; OLIVINE; LUNAR MANTLE; LIQUID OXYGEN; WATER; PLANETARY GEOLOGY; OXYGEN ISOTOPES; MINERALOGY; BASALT; GRAPHITE; CARBON DIOXIDE; NITROGEN; OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS
|Peridot ring stone|
Keywords: Gems; Intaglios; Roman Empire; Peridot; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Roman; Olivine; ca. 1st century B.C.–3rd century A.D; Sculpture
|Peridot ring stone|
Keywords: Gems; Intaglios; Roman Empire; Peridot; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Roman; Olivine; 1st century B.C.–2nd century A.D; Sculpture
|Computational fluid dynamics research - Chandra, Suresh|
The focus of research in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) area is two fold: (1) to develop new approaches for turbulence modeling so that high speed compressible flows can be studied for applications to entry and re-entry flows; and (2) to perform research to improve CFD algorithm accuracy and efficiency for high speed flows. Research activities, faculty and student participation, publications, and financial information are outlined.
Keywords: BASALT; ANORTHOSITE; APOLLO 17 FLIGHT; BRECCIA; HIGHLANDS; LUNAR LANDING SITES; OLIVINE; PYROXENES; IGNEOUS ROCKS; IMPACT MELTS; LITHOLOGY; LUNAR CRUST; LUNAR GEOLOGY; LUNAR ROCKS; LUNAR SOIL; MINERALS
|LINES OF DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WIND POWER PLANTS - SHENFER, K. I.|
THE USE OF WIND POWER PLANTS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IS DISCUSSED. THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS ALTERNATIVE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS INVOLVING WIND POWER PLANTS IS EXAMINED, AND THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH ALTERNATIVE ARE PRESENTED.
Keywords: APOLLO 17 FLIGHT; GLASS; IGNEOUS ROCKS; LEAD (METAL); LUNAR MARIA; OLIVINE; PYROXENES; URANIUM; GEOMORPHOLOGY; LUNAR GEOLOGY; LUNAR LANDING SITES; LUNAR ROCKS; PETROLOGY; BASALT; BRECCIA; FELDSPARS
Keywords: North and Central America; Diamond; Jewelry; Gold; New York City; Gold, peridot, diamonds, pearls, and enamel; Metal; Metropolitan Museum of Art; United States; Pearl; American; New York; Enamels; Costume; Brooches; Pins; ca. 1900; Peridot; Olivine
|Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering - Rheinfurth, M. H.|
This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.
Keywords: OLIVINE; ABUNDANCE; BALANCE; CARBON DIOXIDE; CHONDRITES; EARTH CORE; IGNEOUS ROCKS; IRON OXIDES; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; MARS (PLANET); MASS DISTRIBUTION; SILICATES; METEORITIC COMPOSITION; SULFIDES; OXYGEN; TRANSITION METALS; PLANETARY MANTLES; PLANETARY STRUCTURE; MELTS (CRYSTAL GROWTH); SULFUR DIOXIDES